Condensed Matter Physics, 2013, vol. 16, No. 2, 23603:1-10
DOI:10.5488/CMP.16.23603           arXiv:1307.2027

Title: Universality versus nonuniversality in asymmetric fluid criticality
  M.A. Anisimov (Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742)

Critical phenomena in real fluids demonstrate a combination of universal features caused by the divergence of long-range fluctuations of density and nonuniversal (system-dependent) features associated with specific intermolecular interactions. Asymptotically, all fluids belong to the Ising-model class of universality. The asymptotic power laws for the thermodynamic properties are described by two independent universal critical exponents and two independent nonuniversal critical amplitudes; other critical amplitudes can be obtained by universal relations. The nonuniversal critical parameters (critical temperature, pressure, and density) can be absorbed in the property units. Nonasymptotic critical behavior of fluids can be divided in two parts, symmetric ("Ising-like") and asymmetric ("fluid-like"). The symmetric nonasymptotic behavior contains a new universal exponent (Wegner exponent) and the system-dependent crossover scale (Ginzburg number) associated with the range of intermolecular interactions, while the asymmetric features are generally described by an additional universal exponent and by three nonasymptotic amplitudes associated with mixing of the physical fields into the scaling fields.

Key words: fluids, critical point, universality, complete scaling
PACS: 64.60.F-

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